Date of Award

Spring 2021

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Educational Studies and Psychology

First Advisor

Daniel Douglas

Second Advisor

Stefanie Wong


It is commonly debated what method of school instruction is best for young students: classroom pull-out for additional resources or inclusion models. There is a vast amount of literature that exists on the topic, however a portion of it is quite conflicting. Some say that inclusion methods are best for students’ academic and social needs while others argue classroom pull-out, or resource room, is more beneficial for students’ academic performance and self-esteem. The current study provided a possible answer as to the effects classroom pull-out in the third grade has on academic success and self-concepts in the fifth grade. This study asked, “what are the effects of classroom-pull out in third grade on academic and social self-concepts and academic performance in fifth grade?” To answer this question, information from the public-use data file called the Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies Program, Kindergarten 2011 from the National Center for Educational Statistics was used from Child Questionnaires and interpreted through use of linear regressions. Survey questions concerning third and fifth graders’ social self-concepts and academic self-concepts were of focus for the present study. Linear regressions were then conducted to determine fifth grade outcomes in terms of academic performance and self-concepts. The results of the data analysis suggested that classroom pull-out for additional resources in the third grade had a negative influence on fifth grade academic self-concept, social self-concept and fifth grade reading and math test scores. Implications including school policy changes are discussed as well as the need and hope to make classrooms an inclusive environment for all types of learners to improve on themselves mentally and academically.


Senior thesis completed at Trinity College, Hartford CT for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Educational Studies and Psychology.