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Date of Award

Spring 2015

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


LACS and International Studies

First Advisor

Anne Lambright

Second Advisor

Aidali Aponte-Aviles


In 1990, Chile ended the seventeen-year military regime by Augusto Pinochet. The period of democracy and the implementation of the free-market neoliberal system that followed have been deemed by many sources the “Chilean miracle.” By evaluating this concept of globalization through a critical reading of the music of Ana Tijoux, a Chilean rapper born in France, I evaluate the extent of the popular “Chilean miracle” claim. Tijoux’s music should be considered in the context of the “Chilean miracle” because of its critique on globalization in Chilean society. I look at several of her music videos and ask the question: How do these works portray globalization in Chile? I have investigated and analyzed questions of globalization and modernity and their effects on Chilean culture through a review of theories by specific Latin American enthusiasts such as Manfred Steger, Anibal Quijano, Enrique Dussel, Nelly Richard and Naomi Klein, followed by an analysis of several pieces of music by Ana Tijoux. I specifically focus on looking at how Tijoux’s music can be considered “refractory” under Richard’s Theory of Refractory art by showing her music’s capability to;

"…actively dismantle and reformulate tensions and antagonisms via figurative languages that intervene in social discursivity, redistributing its signs, and changing them into new, multiple, and fluctuating constellations" (Insubordination 67).

Lastly, I raise the question: can it be proven that globalization isn’t a myth, but rather that it has been mirrored in many cultural products?


Senior thesis completed at Trinity College for the degree of Bachelor of Arts in International Studies. Full text access is limited to the Trinity campus.