Date of Award

Spring 2023

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science



First Advisor

Dina Anselmi


Past research has found that psychological factors and dimensions of cultural orientation can be salient predictors of general as well as Covid-19-specific vaccine hesitancy beliefs and attitudes. Gender and age have also been shown to influence these relationships, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. The current study aimed to extend on past literature to explore psychological factors like empathy and prosociality, and dimensions of individualism and collectivism orientations, to examine whether they predicted vaccine status in different age and gender cohorts. Empathy was measured using the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire developed by Spreng et al. (2009); prosociality was measured using the Prosociality Scale for adults developed by Caprara et al. (2005); and individualism and collectivism orientations were assessed using Triandis & Gelfland’s (1998) Individualism and Collectivism Scale. Results indicated that empathetic women and individuals with vertical collectivism, horizontal individualism, and horizontal collectivism orientations were associated with significantly higher odds of being voluntarily vaccinated. Future research might expand on the literature concerning predictors of Covid-19 vaccination by specifically looking at motives of voluntary vaccination since it is a largely understudied area. Researchers might also investigate the associations between empathy and prosociality in voluntary Covid-19 vaccination more deeply because past literature has indicated that they are significant predictors of vaccine acceptance.

Keywords: Empathy, Prosociality, Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism, Age, Gender, Covid-19 Vaccine Status, Voluntary Vaccination


Senior Thesis completed at Trinity College, Hartford (CT) for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Psychology.

Recommended Citation:

Furlan, Victoria, "Do Empathy, Prosociality, and Cultural Orientation Among Age and Gender Cohorts Predict Covid-19 Vaccine Status?". Senior Theses, Trinity College, Hartford, CT 2023. Trinity College Digital Repository,

Included in

Psychology Commons