Date of Award

Spring 2023

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science



First Advisor

Laura Holt


Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), otherwise known as e-cigarettes, is a relatively new and increasingly prevalent behavior among young adults. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture of young adult ENDS users by documenting ENDS prevalence, outcome expectancies, negative consequences, dependence, and readiness to quit, with the ultimate goal of informing cessation interventions. A total of 1606 students on six college campuses in the U.S. participated in an online survey that was administered between Fall 2021-Spring 2022. Nearly half (47%) reported using ENDS devices at some point in their lifetime; within that group, 51% reported using ENDS in the past 30 days. As hypothesized, positive outcome expectancies were higher for ENDS users and negative outcome expectancies were higher for non-users. Also as hypothesized, users with a quit attempt reported more positive outcome expectancies and greater e-cigarette dependence compared to users without a quit attempt. Further, frequency of ENDS use was associated with more tobacco and nicotine consequences. Finally, users reporting a prior quit attempt perceived replacing vaping with another activity as the most effective cessation strategy, and the majority have used the strategy of quitting cold turkey. Surprisingly, there was less experience with, and enthusiasm for apps and text-based interventions. These findings will be helpful in shaping successful ENDS cessation development.


Senior thesis completed at Trinity College, Hartford CT for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Psychology.

Included in

Psychology Commons