© 2019 Author(s). In a complex system, the interactions between individual agents often lead to emergent collective behavior such as spontaneous synchronization, swarming, and pattern formation. Beyond the intrinsic properties of the agents, the topology of the network of interactions can have a dramatic influence over the dynamics. In many studies, researchers start with a specific model for both the intrinsic dynamics of each agent and the interaction network and attempt to learn about the dynamics of the model. Here, we consider the inverse problem: given data from a system, can one learn about the model and the underlying network? We investigate arbitrary networks of coupled phase oscillators that can exhibit both synchronous and asynchronous dynamics. We demonstrate that, given sufficient observational data on the transient evolution of each oscillator, machine learning can reconstruct the interaction network and identify the intrinsic dynamics.