© 2019, The Author(s). This work presents a user-study evaluation of various visual and haptic feedback modes on a real telemanipulation platform. Of particular interest is the potential for haptic guidance virtual fixtures and 3D-mapping techniques to enhance efficiency and awareness in a simple teleoperated valve turn task. An RGB-Depth camera is used to gather real-time color and geometric data of the remote scene, and the operator is presented with either a monocular color video stream, a 3D-mapping voxel representation of the remote scene, or the ability to place a haptic guidance virtual fixture to help complete the telemanipulation task. The efficacy of the feedback modes is then explored experimentally through a user study, and the different modes are compared on the basis of objective and subjective metrics. Despite the simplistic task and numerous evaluation metrics, results show that the haptic virtual fixture resulted in significantly better collision avoidance compared to 3D visualization alone. Anticipated performance enhancements were also observed moving from 2D to 3D visualization. Remaining comparisons lead to exploratory inferences that inform future direction for focused and statistically significant studies.
Intelligent Service Robotics