Primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs) are a unique training ground for young scientists who work closely with faculty on their research. Researchers at PUIs face a number of challenges, including balancing research and teaching responsibilities, obtaining sufficient funding for projects, and training students in their first research experiences. Faculty at PUIs deploy a variety of strategies to address these challenges, and the resulting research provides important benefits to faculty, students, the analytical chemistry community, and society. This perspective discusses these challenges and benefits in detail. Additionally, several vignettes describe how specific faculty members have established and maintained productive research programs at PUIs, and select publications since 2009 by PUI researchers are highlighted.