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Numerous studies have established feedback as being among the most effective ways to improve student achievement. However, not all studies have defined feedback in the same way. This means that the effectiveness of feedback has depended on how it is defined and the context in which it is provided (Hattie & Timperely, 2007). This project investigates if changes in student academic achievement, motivation, and metacognition vary based on the type of feedback students are provided on assignments. Students were given either grades alongside traditional forms of minimal written feedback, or no grades alongside elaborate but targeted written feedback. The students in the study were enrolled in two sections of a high school world history class at Hartford Magnet Trinity College Academy. All feedback was provided by Ms. Debra Avery over the course of a four-week instructional unit. The effectiveness of the type of feedback was assessed before the unit began and at the end of the unit by measuring scores from a comprehension-based test, and by questionnaires that asked about student metacognition and motivation. Student perceptions on the usefulness of feedback were also collected to assess the level of engagement students had with the feedback they received. Students were able to learn more effectively by the end of the unit when given no grades alongside enhanced feedback; however, students did not necessarily perceive their own growth within the four-week span of the study.


Community partner: Hartford Magnet Trinity College Academy