The 6th World Congress of Herpetology (WCH), held in Manaus, Brazil in 2008, provided an excellent venue for a broad, integrative symposium on reproduction in reptiles. This symposium brought together researchers from throughout the world who are working on diverse reptilian species. The symposium’s title “Reproduction in Reptiles from Genes to Ecology,” captures the methodological breadth of contemporary research as well as its integrative nature. This special issue of Herpetological Conservation and Biology presents a series of papers from contributors to that symposium. In this introduction to the special issue, we offer an evolutionary overview of reptilian reproduction and summarize the nature, characteristics, and implications of current research efforts, as represented in the WCH symposium.